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Liu Huaqiu on China's Foreign Policy

China will become an important player in the future multi-polarized world as the nation's international status and prestige rise steadily, according to Liu Huaqiu, director of the State Council Foreign Affair Office.

Liu expresses the viewpoint in an article carried in the 23rd issue of the fortnightly "Qiushi Magazine" which was published on December 1.

He notes that new China was founded in 1949 and that China has always, especially over the past 20 years, observed the diplomatic thinking initiated by late Chinese leaders Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping. He said the nation has recorded monumental achievements in unswervingly implementing its independent foreign policy of peace.

Liu provides an in-depth analysis of the basic objectives and principles, and main content of China's foreign policy, as well as major readjustments and diplomatic achievements since 1949.

He noted that in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), General Secretary Jiang Zemin reiterated that "China will, as always, adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace".

Jiang also provided a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of China's current 10 principles on foreign affairs, said Liu.

"This fully reflects the close attention the CPC has paid to the independent foreign policy of peace and its unswerving determination to continue the policy," he added.

Liu says that Deng Xiaoping, who directed China's diplomatic work over the past two decades, had an excellent mastery of the domestic developments and of the changing international situation, as well a full grasp of the characteristics of the times. He noted that Deng further developed and perfected China's foreign policy.

Liu goes on to say that the basic goal of the policy, which features independence and peace, is to firmly safeguard the nation's independence, security and sovereignty, and adopt a positive attitude toward safeguarding world peace, in a bid to create a long-term peaceful international environment for China's socialist modernization drive.

He says the main content and basic principles of the policy include: safeguarding independence; opposing hegemonism and safeguarding world peace; developing good-neighborly relations; strengthening unity and cooperation amongst third world nations; establishing and developing friendly cooperative ties with all nations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence; maintaining a positive attitude toward international cooperation; making energetic efforts to promote the establishment of a new international order; opposing arms race and promoting the disarmament process; practicing comprehensive opening to the outside world; and actively enhancing the friendly people-to-people contacts throughout the world.

Liu says that in the early days of new China, it formed an alliance with the former Soviet Union to fight hostility, isolation and blockade by the United States with a "turning to one side" strategy that was necessary at the time.

But, the former Soviet Union was chauvinistic and attempted to force China to submit to its own strategic needs. It proposed setting up a long-wave radio station that it would control in China and a joint naval fleet, showing its intent to control China militarily. To get China to submit to its control, the former Soviet Union put pressure on China by withdrawing its experts from China and tearing up economic agreements it had signed with China and deployed one million soldiers along the Sino-Soviet and Sino-Mongolian borders, posing a serious threat to China.

To safeguard its sovereignty and dignity, China did not give in to the Soviet pressure and put up a fight against hegemonism.

In the 1970s, with the US strength reduced by the Vietnam War, the former Soviet Union took advantage of the opportunity to expand, posing a serious threat to world peace and Chinese security. Having assessed this situation, the late Chairman Mao Zedong decided to open the door to Sino-US relations, and put forth the "one-line" strategy that extended from Japan to the U.S. and to Europe, in order to counter the Soviet challenge.

This strategy began in the mid-'70s and lasted until the early '80s. It played an important role in relaxing tensions in Chinese security at the time, ending the long period of being surrounded by enemies and curbing Soviet expansion and hegemonism.

Liu says that there are defects in drawing a line on the basis of strategic relations, and both the "turning to one side" strategy and the "one-line" strategy affected Chinese relations with some countries to certain degree and costed the country in necessary flexibility and initiative.

After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, China entered the new phase of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, and Deng Xiaoping made some major adjustments to the country's foreign policy, based on changes in the domestic and international situations, in order to safeguard independence and self-determination and to be truly non-aligned.

China changed the "one-line" strategy and did not form an alliance or forge strategic relations with any big powers. On international issues, it considers the basic interests of the Chinese people and the people of the world and independently decides its own stance on the pros and cons of these issues.

China made its policy of peace in foreign relations clear when Deng Xiaoping said that its fundamental goals were to oppose hegemonism, safeguard world peace, and promote human progress. He tied the principle of independence closely to that of peaceful foreign relations.

Deng emphasized that socialist China belongs to the third world and will always stand by the third world. He always took strengthening unity and co-operation with developing countries as a basic part of China's foreign affairs, promoting mutually beneficial and friendly co-operative relations with the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Deng also was of the view that in handling state-to-state relations, no lines should be drawn in accordance with social systems and ideology, and corrected the deviation of "drawing a line" by the former Soviet Union or "drawing a line" by the US, creating favorable conditions for friendly co-operative relations with all other countries.

He also called for the proper handling of the relations between independence and opening up to the outside world. In the process of opening up, the country should always put national independence and sovereignty above anything else.

Another adjustment of the foreign policy was the resolving of the Hong Kong and Macao issues with the "one country, two systems" concept. The success of this concept has created favorable conditions and practical experience for the resolution of the Taiwan question, and provided a successful example for other countries to follow in resolving issues left from history by peaceful means.

Deng also spelled out the strategic principle of keeping a level mind in observation, getting a firm foothold, having a sure hand, and accomplishing something.

Deng's ideas on foreign affairs are an important part of his theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and a creative development of the foreign policy of peace formulated by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.

In the past 20 years, in spite of drastic changes in the international situation, China has followed Deng's ideas on diplomacy and scored great achievements in diplomacy:

-- It has withstood the effects of the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, and the pressure and sanctions imposed on China by some Western countries;

-- It has successfully safeguarded its sovereignty and national dignity;

-- It resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, and pushed forward its great cause of peaceful reunification of the motherland;

-- It has promoted good-neighborly friendships, and developed friendship and co-operation with its neighboring countries;

-- It has strengthened unity and co-operation with most other developing countries;

-- On the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence, it has developed relations with Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, and improved its relations with Western countries;

-- It has created a good international environment for continuing its reform, opening-up, and modernization drive by expanding economic, trade, and technology exchanges and co-operation, and cultural and other exchanges with other countries;

-- It has taken an active part in international and regional diplomacy, playing a unique role in diplomatic activities, promoting the development of multi-polarization, and making a great contribution to world peace and stability.

Liu said that the third-generation of CPC Central Committee leaders with Jiang Zemin at the core is following the independent foreign policy of peace formulated by the first-generation and the second-generation of leaders, and this demonstrates their ability to correctly handle complicated international affairs.

No matter what changes may occur in the international situation in years to come, Liu said, China, under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee headed by Jiang Zemin, will continue to hold the banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory high, continue to follow the independent foreign policy of peace, strive for a lasting international peaceful environment, and make its due contributions to its modernization drive and to world peace and development.


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